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PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES                     311

along with the understanding of the unconscious impulses
there must also come a change of the conscious attitude;
because the activation of the unconscious opposition has
grown out of this one-sidedness and the recognition of the
unconscious impulses is fruitful, only when it can also effect
a real compensation of the conscious one-sidedness.

But the transformation of the conscious attitude is no
small matter, for the sum total of a general attitude is always
more or less of a conscious ideal, sanctified by custom and
historical tradition, solidly founded on the rockbottom
of innate temperament. The conscious attitude is always
in the nature of a philosophy of life, when it is not definitely
a religion. It is this fact which makes the problem of the
types so important. The opposition between the types is
not only an external conflict between men, but also the source
of endless inner conflicts; not only the cause of external
disagreements and antagonism, but also the inner occasion
of nervous illness and psychic disorders. It is ihis fact
also that forces us as physicians to extend the limits of what
was originally a purely medico-psychological horizon so as
to include within its range not only general psychological
view-points, but also the problem of a conceptually formulated
view of life (Weltanschauung).

Within the limits of a lecture, I am unable, of course,
to give you any idea of the depth and extent of these problems.
I must needs content myself with a rather formal outline
of the main facts, and of the general implications of
the problems involved. For the fuller elaboration of the
problem I must refer you to its detailed presentation in
my book Psychological Types.

Recapitulating, I would like to stress certain points:
Each of the two attitudes introversion and extraversion
appears in the individual through a special kind of pre-
dominance ' of one of the four basic functions. Strictly
speaking, there are in reality no unqualified extraverts or
introverts, but extraverted and introverted function-typeSj